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Dating of Rocks and Fossils

Dating of rocks and other so called prehistoric remains is done by analysing the ratio of isotopes. The elements of the universe are made up of atoms. An atom comprises a central core called the nucleus with a number of tiny bundles of energy called electrons flying around the outside in orbit. Think of the sun with the planets in orbit to get the picture. The nucleus comprises roughly equal numbers of elementary particles known as protons and neutrons packed tightly together. The number of electrons flying around is the same as the number of protons. Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged, so overall the charge of an atom is neutral. So, for example hydrogen consists of one proton and one electron. Carbon has 14 protons, 14 neutrons and 14 electrons. As the number of protons gets greater, the element can become unstable. Think of a bundle of footballs held together by elastic bands and how unstable that could become. In such cases, protons and neutrons occasionally come unstuck and fly out of the nucleus. So heavier elements such as Uranium can exist in different forms, called isotopes depending on the number of elementary particles present. For example, Uranium can exist with 238 particles, but it is unstable. It radiates particles and the composition gradually drops from 238 to 235 particles in the atom over a period of time. By analysing the proportion of so-called parent to daughter state, we have an indication of the time this process has been going on. The half-life is defined as the time taken for the parent to daughter ratio to be 50%. The half-life of uranium is believed to be 760 million years. So the assumption is that 760 million years ago uranium was created with 238 particles and by the time it reaches the half-life, half of the molecules would have been converted to 235. This is actually another example of entropy. Random particles are lost from the nucleus, but never replaced. Different elements have different half-life, which can be used to supposedly date a rock or fossil. The idea is that the proportion of the isotopes gives an indication of the length of time the element has been in existence. The problem is that we have only been able to observe this decay over a period of less than 100 years since we learned how to carry out such measurements. We cannot observe what the rate was say a thousand or 5000 years ago. Assumptions and extrapolations are made which may be totally invalid.

 

The evidence is that the entire universe is winding down heading towards heat-death which is the end point of entropy. The sun is cooling, gravity is decreasing, the speed of light is decreasing, all of life is decaying and losing information. No new matter, energy or information is being injected into the universe unless it is from a source outside of the created universe. We do not know the effect of all of these changes over a long period of thousands of years. Thus we cannot accurately assess the dates of very old material; we can only guess. To base your philosophy of life, your belief in God and your eternal destiny on such transient and inaccurate knowledge is very foolish.

 

Most of the arguments relating to the age of fossils are circular, beginning with an arbitrary starting point. For example, a fossilised creature is known to be 3 Billion years old because it is in rock that is 3 Billion years old. How do we know the rock is 3 Billion years old? Because it contains fossils that are 3 Billion years old.

Fossils appear to be the remains of creatures that existed millions of years ago. As they have died, the hard parts have become embedded in rock and can be extracted often as whole creatures, but frequently as partial remains. Given partial remains, assumptions have to be made about what the creature looked like originally. There can be no proof, but only artistic licence about its appearance. Given a stratum of rock, many similar if not identical creatures such a trilobites can be found at varying depths. This does not point to evolution, but rather a continuation of the same species over millions of years, assuming we are talking millions of years, as evolutionists would presume.

 

The deepest fossil ever found was 16,000 ft below the surface, which is about 3 miles. If we take the best case scenario for evolution, and say that fossils were at a depth of 5 miles and that the earth has been in existence for 4.5 billion years. To deposit 5 miles depth of material on top of the fossils in that timeframe would amount to 0.002 mm per year. So a creature of say 1 cm in height would have to lie without moving for at least 5000 years whilst sediment builds up around it. This is a best-case scenario for the evolution theory and seems therefore highly unlikely. For a large creature such as a dinosaur of many feet in height, for the fossil to be intact, the remains would have to lie absolutely static and dormant and without being eroded for hundreds of thousands of years whilst sediment builds around it. Yet we can see millions of examples of trilobites perfectly preserved in rocks supposedly gradually laid over millions of years.

 

A far more likely explanation for such remains is a catastrophic flood such as described in Genesis 6, where a huge deluge of water covered the earth, killing most land creatures instantaneously. As the water subsided, a deep layer of mud would be deposited containing the dead bodies of animals, preserving the resistant parts, which would over time become integrated with the surrounding rocks under pressure.

 

When we look at fossils, we see the same creatures and different depths with no intermediate ‘missing links’. Evolutions search in vain for any missing links to complete the evolutionary chain, but nothing ever comes to light1. Some of the apparent findings have usually turned out to be mistakes or deliberate frauds, such as the Piltdown man 2. Why on earth would anyone deliberately try to fake such a find? They have a theory that leaves out God and are desperately trying to make it work and force or manipulate the facts to fit their theory and belief.

There are so many anomalies in the whole area of dating. Examples like coins found in rocks that would appear to be 200 million years old, a human footprint literally on top of a trilobite3.

 

The facts appear to align with the Biblical statement that God made every creature to multiply after its own kind and there has been no evidence to prove that one creature has evolved into any other. No fish’s scale has ever been shown to evolve into a feather. A feather is an amazing design, far beyond anything man can make, with intricate and elaborate hooks and hinges to enable flight. The DNA required to produce such mechanisms is so different from that which produces scales. Anyway, as we have discussed, a feather is far more complex than a scale and time does not build complexity through chance. Entropy creates simplicity and chaos rather than order and complexity. Time moves evolution in the wrong direction, which confirms a young earth and younger age of all creatures.

 

1. Darwinism challenged: http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/darwinism.1.html

2. Piltdown Man: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/hoax/

3. Dating anomalies: http://www.forbiddenarcheology.com/

 

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